torstai 4. huhtikuuta 2013

Linux folder hierarchy

I am too lazy to write my own stuff because other posts on the internet explain this so well. Original post:

The /bin directory is where many of the basic Linux commands are housed. The /bin directory is in all standard user $PATHS, meaning that any executable contained within /bin can be executed from anywhere in the directory structure. The globalization of the /bin directory allows the user to run the ls (and other commands) on current working directories and files.

The /boot directory houses all the boot code for the Linux system. Crucial files are housed within this directory and, unless a kernel recompilation is necessary, it is best not to touch the contents of /boot.

The /dev directory seems to be the biggest mystery to new Linux users. To understand this directory, you need to keep in mind that everything is treated as a file in Linux—even devices such as printers, scanners, and hard drives.

Since everything is a file in Linux, every file needs a centralized location to be housed, and what better place to house device files than the /dev directory?

By running the ls command from within the /dev directory, you will see entries such as audio,cdrom, hda, sda, and ttyS0. Each of these entries represents a possible hardware (or system) device for the machine. For example, on my machine, I know that /dev/hda is the first primary partition on my hard drive.

The /etc directory is a vital part of the Linux system because it contains the majority of the necessary configuration files and resources. Most of these files are saved in text format, so they are editable with any text editor. The permissions of the /etc directory dictate that only the root user can modify the contents. Do not change this permission.

The /home directory houses all the individual user account information as well as the users' personal files. If a particular Linux system has normal user accounts such as Jack, John, and Jim, then /home will contain directories for each user (named after each respective user).

The /lib directory contains all the shared library files necessary to run the Linux system. These files are all dynamically linked from various places around the hierarchy.

The /lost+found directory contains stray files that have been picked up after a system crash. Typically, after a crash, lost files will appear as numbered files (not as the original filenames).

The /opt directory is simply a location where larger packages (such as StarOffice, OpenOffice, and Applixware) should be installed.

The /proc directory contains virtual files for various processes on a machine such as the CPU, RAM, I/O Ports, and Interrupts.

The /sbin directory contains many applications that are reserved for the root user. The /sbindirectory should house any applications that are necessary to start system processes, as well as many of the configuration utilities (such as netconf).

The /tmp directory holds the temporary files that are needed for various applications and processes.

The /usr directory contains a number of very important subdirectories such as:

This directory is like /bin, only it contains more advanced commands and many user-installed commands.
This is where the kernel source is located.
This directory is commonly used to install packages from source.
This directory contains system commands that can be executed only by the system or the root user.
This directory contains the documentation installed on the system.
This directory contains the files used by the man help system.
The /var directory contains system files, such as logs, and often-changing user/system files, such as print spoolers and mail spoolers.

Ei kommentteja:

Lähetä kommentti